This paper examines the effects of an intervention that expanded access to low-cost, government-sponsored, community-based playgroups in rural Indonesia. Instrumental variables and difference-in-differences models indicate that while the intervention raised enrollment rates and durations of enrollment for everyone, on average, there was little impact on child development. The two models correspond to different durations of project exposure. The difference-in-differences model captures greater exposure and shows that there are modest and sustained impacts on child development—especially for children from more disadvantaged backgrounds. There is also evidence that the intervention encouraged substitution away from other services, such as kindergartens.
The Xpert™ MTB/RIF (XP) has a higher sensitivity than sputum smear microscopy (70% versus 35%) for TB diagnosis and has been endorsed by the WHO for TB high burden countries to increase case finding among HIV co-infected presumptive TB patients. Its impact on the diagnosis of smear-negative TB in a routine care setting is unclear. We determined the change in diagnosis, treatment and mortality of smear-negative presumptive TB with routine use of Xpert MTB/RIF (XP).
Sabine M. Hermans, Juliet A. Babirye, Olive Mbabazi, Francis Kakooza, Robert Colebunders, Barbara Castelnuovo, Christine Sekaggya-Wiltshire, Rosalind Parkes-Ratanshi and Yukari C. Manabe
BMC Infectious Diseases DOI: 10.1186/s12879-017-2534-2
Authored by: Dedicoat MJ, Günther G, Crudu V, Duarte R, Gualano G, Magis-Escurra C, Rumetshofer R, Skrahina A, Spinu V, Tiberi S, Viiklepp P, van Leth F, Lange C; TBNET.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017 Mar 21. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201612-2585LE. [Epub ahead of print] No abstract available.
Authored by: Bruins WS, van Leth F.
Infect Dis (Lond). 2017 Mar;49(3):161-169. doi: 10.1080/23744235.2016.1262059.
Authored by: Sugianli AK, Ginting F, Kusumawati RL, Pranggono EH, Pasaribu AP, Gronthoud F, Geerlings S, Parwati I, De Jong MD, Van Leth F, Schultsz C.
J Antimicrob Chemother. 2017 Jan 30. pii: dkw578. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkw578. [Epub ahead of print]
Authored by: James H. Cole, PhD; Jonathan Underwood, MBBS, BSc; Matthan W.A. Caan, PhD; Davide De Francesco, MSc; Rosan A. van Zoest, MD; Robert Leech, PhD; Ferdinand W.N.M. Wit, PhD; Peter Portegies, PhD; Gert J. Geurtsen, PhD; Ben A. Schmand, PhD; Maarten F. Schim van der Loeff, PhD; Claudio Franceschi, PhD; Caroline A. Sabin, PhD; Charles B.L.M. Majoie, MD, PhD; Alan Winston, MD, PhD; Peter Reiss, MD, PhD; David J. Sharp, PhD. On behalf of the COBRA collaboration.
In: Neurology. DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000003790
Authored by: Rimke Bijker, Awachana Jiamsakul, Cissy Kityo, Sasisopin Kiertiburanakul, Margaret Siwale, Praphan Phanuphak, Sulaimon Akanmu, Romanee Chaiwarith, Ferdinand W Wit, Benedict LH Sim, Tamara Sonia Boender, Rossana Ditangco, Tobias F Rinke de Wit, Annette H Sohn, Raph L Hamers.
In: Journal of the International AIDS Society 2017, 20:21218
Our understanding of how to achieve optimal long-term adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in settings where the burden of HIV disease is highest remains limited. We compared levels and determinants of adherence over time between HIV-positive persons receiving ART who were enrolled in a bi-regional cohort in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia.
Authored by: Helen Cox, Lindy Dickson-Hall, Norbert Ndjeka, Anja van’t Hoog, Alison Grant, Frank Cobelens, Wendy Stevens, Mark Nicol.
In: PLoS Med 14(2): e1002238. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1002238
South Africa has a large burden of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB), with 18,734 patients diagnosed in 2014. The number of diagnosed patients has increased substantially with the introduction of the Xpert MTB/RIF test, used for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis for all patients with presumptive TB. Routine aggregate data suggest a large treatment gap (pre-treatment loss to follow-up) between the numbers of patients with laboratory-confirmed RR-TB and those reported to have started second-line treatment. We aimed to assess the impact of Xpert MTB/RIF implementation on the delay to treatment initiation and loss to follow-up before second-line treatment for RR-TB across South Africa.
Authored by: Inzaule, S.C., Hamers, R.L., Paredes, R., Yang, C., Schuurman, R. and Rinke de Wit, T.F.
In: AIDS Reviews, in press, 2017.
Authored by: Mugo, P., Micheni, M., Shangala, J., Hanif, M., Graham, S., Rinke de Wit, T.F., and Sanders, E.
In: PLOS One, in press, 2017.
Authored by: Bijker, R., Jiamsaku, A., Kityo, C.M., Kiertiburanakul, S., Siwale, M., Phanuphak, P., Akanmu, S., Chaiwarit, R., Wit, F., Sim, B.L.H., Boender, T.S., Ditangco, R., Rinke de Wit, T.F., Sohn, A.H. and Hamers, R.L. . J.
In: Int. AIDS Soc., in press, 2017.
Authored by: Kooij KW, Wit FW, Booiman T, van der Valk M, Schim van der Loeff MF, Kootstra NA, Reiss P; AGEhIV Cohort Study Group.
In: J Infect Dis. 2016 Dec 15;214(12):1817-1821.
Smoking may affect cardiovascular disease risk more strongly in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals than HIV-uninfected individuals. We hypothesized that an interaction at the level of the immune system may contribute to this increased risk. We assessed soluble markers of inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP]), immune activation (soluble [s]CD14 and sCD163), and coagulation (D-dimer) in HIV-infected and uninfected never, former, and current smokers. Smoking was independently associated with higher hsCRP levels and lower sCD163 levels and was borderline significantly associated with higher sCD14 and D-dimer levels. We found no evidence of a differential effect of smoking in HIV-infected individuals as compared to uninfected individuals.
Authored by: Alffenaar JC, Akkerman OW, Anthony RM, Tiberi S, Heysell S, Grobusch MP, Cobelens FG, Van Soolingen D.
In: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2017;15:11-21.
Success rates for treatment of extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) are low due to limited treatment options, delayed diagnosis and inadequate health care infrastructure. Areas covered: This review analyses existing programmes of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of XDR-TB. Improved diagnostic procedures and rapid molecular tests help to select appropriate drugs and dosages. Drugs dosages can be further tailored to the specific conditions of the patient based on quantitative susceptibility testing of the M. tuberculosis isolate and use of therapeutic drug monitoring. Pharmacovigilance is important for preserving activity of the novel drugs bedaquiline and delamanid. Furthermore, biomarkers of treatment response must be developed and validated to guide therapeutic decisions. Expert commentary: Given the currently poor treatment outcomes and the association of XDR-TB with HIV in endemic regions, a more patient oriented approach regarding diagnostics, drug selection and tailoring and treatment evaluation will improve treatment outcome. The different areas of expertise should be covered by a multidisciplinary team and may involve the transition of patients from hospitalized to home or community-based treatment.
Authored by: Xia H, Zheng Y, Zhao B, Van den Hof S, Cobelens F, Zhao Y.
In: PLoS One 2017;12:e0169413.
Authored by: Cobelens F, Kik S, Esmail H, Cirillo DM, Lienhardt C, Matteelli A.
In: Lancet Resp Med 2016.
Tuberculosis remains a major global health problem. It is estimated that more than 2 billion people around the world are latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, with a lifetime risk of progression to tuberculosis disease of 5–15%.1 The WHO End Tuberculosis strategy, which aims to end tuberculosis as a major health problem by 2035, calls for reducing this huge reservoir for transmission by scaling up preventive therapy of individuals with latent tuberculosis infection. Preventive therapy with daily isoniazid offers 60–90% protection and combination therapies (daily isoniazid-rifampicin, weekly isoniazid-rifapentine) are effective alternatives.
Ankeiler: In this viewpoint paper Frank Cobelens and co-authors propose a new paradigm for understanding testing for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). It distinguishes testing for persistent TB infection from testing for very early clinical („incipient”) TB and argues that only tests that belong to the latter category will be sufficiently predictive for clinical tuberculosis developing within a 2-year timeframe to be used for large-scale test-and-treat of LTBI. This notion has implications for the design, evaluation and application of new LTBI tests.
Authored by: Trajman A, Cobelens F.
In: Lancet Infect Dis, 2017 5 Jan.
Of the 9·6 million people estimated to have developed tuberculosis in 2014, only 63% of cases were reported.1 This gap partly reflects low rates of case detection and calls for models of intensified case finding at the community level based on effective and feasible screening strategies and technologies.
Ankeiler: In this comment Anete Trajman and Frank Cobelens discuss the limitations of pragmatic trials of enhanced/active case finding for tuberculosis, in particular the sensitivity of the results to variation in existing practice and the importance of cost-effectiveness.
Authored by: Fofana M, Shrestha S, Knight G, Cohen T, White R, Cobelens F, Dowdy D.
In: Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 2016 Dec 12. pii: AAC.00498-16.
Authored by: Chanda-Kapata P, Kapata N, Masiye F, Maboshe M, Klinkenberg E, Cobelens F, Grobusch MP.
In: PLoS One 2016;11:e0163975.
Authored by: The PASER group, Ravi Gupta, Raph Hamers et al.
In: The Lancet online 2016 November 30, doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(16)30469-8
HIV-1 drug resistance to older thymidine analogue nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor drugs has been identified in sub-Saharan Africa in patients with virological failure of first-line combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) containing the modern nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor tenofovir. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and correlates of thymidine analogue mutations (TAM) in patients with virological failure of first-line tenofovir-containing ART.
Authored by: NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC)*
In: The Lancet online 2016 November 15, doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31919-5
*Hendriks, M. e.a.
Raised blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and chronic kidney disease. We estimated worldwide trends in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of, and number of people with, raised blood pressure, defined as systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg or higher or diastolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or higher.
Authored by: Kunkel A, Cobelens F, Cohen T.
In: PLoS Med 2016;13:e1002142.
Bedaquilline, a new drug to treat tuberculosis, is currently only recommended for use in patients with advanced forms of drug resistance (XDR-TB and “pre-XDR-TB’). In a collaboration with Yale School of Public Health we used mathematical modeling to predict the effects of alternative scenarios of introducing bedaquilline. We showed that expanding bedaquiline access to all patients with MDR TB would have the best trade-offs for patients’ health, protection of background MDR TB drugs and reduction in transmission, although it would likely result in greater resistance to bedaquiline. This means that WHO should consider less restrictive use of this drug. Read more
Authored by: Ssengooba W, Respeito D, Mambuque E, Blanco S, Bulo H, Mandomando I, de Jong BC, Cobelens FG, García-Basteiro AL.
In: PLoS One 2016;11:e0162833.
In this study done in Mozambique we analyzed whether information about sputum bacterial burden provided by the GeneXpert diagnostic test is associated with diagnostic delays among tuberculosis patients, and could thereby be used to monitor such delays as an indicator of the quality of TB control efforts. We found no such association. Read more
Authored by: Lange C, Duarte R, Fréchet-Jachym M, Guenther G, Guglielmetti L, Olaru ID, Oliveira O, Rumetshofer R, Veziris N, van Leth F; European MDR-TB database collaboration.
In: Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2016 Sep 29. [Epub ahead of print] No abstract available.
Authored by: Senkoro M, Kumar AM, Chinnakali P, Mfinanga SG, Egwaga S, Kamara V, van Leth F, Hinderaker SG.
In: Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2016 Oct;20(10):1326-1333.
Authored by: Revell AD, Wang D, Wood R, Morrow C, Tempelman H, Hamers RL, Reiss P, van Sighem AI, Nelson M, Montaner JS, Lane HC, Larder BA; RDI Data and Study Group.
In: J Antimicrob Chemother. 2016 Oct;71(10):2928-37. PMID: 27330070
Authored by: Boender TS, Kityo CM, Boerma RS, Hamers RL, Ondoa P, Wellington M, Siwale M, Nankya I, Kaudha E, Akanmu AS, Botes ME, Steegen K, Calis JC, Rinke de Wit TF, Sigaloff KC.
In: J Antimicrob Chemother. 2016 Oct;71(10):2918-27. PMID: 27342546
Authored by: Boender TS, Hamers RL, Ondoa P, Wellington M, Chimbetete C, Siwale M, Labib Maksimos EE, Balinda SN, Kityo CM, Adeyemo TA, Akanmu AS, Mandaliya K, Botes ME, Stevens W, Rinke de Wit TF, Sigaloff KC.
In: J Infect Dis. 2016 Sep 15;214(6):873-83. PMID: 27402780
Authored by: Inzaule SC, Ondoa P, Peter T, Mugyenyi PN, Stevens WS, de Wit TF, Hamers RL.
In: Lancet Infect Dis. 2016 Aug 25. pii: S1473-3099(16)30118-9. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(16)30118-9. PMID: 27569762
Authored by: Hamers RL, Paredes R.
In: Lancet HIV. 2016 Sep 14. pii: S2352-3018(16)30151-5. doi: 10.1016/S2352-3018(16)30151-5. PMID: 27658866
Authored by: Senkoro M, Mfinanga S, Egwaga S, Mtandu R, Kamara DV, Basra D, Fundikira L, Kahwa A, Shirima R, Range N, Hinderaker SG , van Leth F
In: Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2016 Aug;20(8):1014-21. doi: 10.5588/ijtld.15.0340
Authored by: Evenblij K, Verbon A, van Leth F
In: BMC Public Health. 2016 Sep 1;16(1):915. doi: 10.1186/s12889-016-3539-2
Authored by: Andrew D. Kerkhoff
Thesis Universiteit van Amsterdam
Promotores: F.G.J. Cobelens, S.D. Lawn
Date of thesis defense: 21/06/2016
Tuberculosis remains the leading cause of death among people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa and worldwide. This thesis found that moderate or severe anaemia was highly predictive of both prevalent and incident tuberculosis among ambulatory outpatients as well as hospitalised in-patients in South Africa and was also a very strong independent predictor of mortality. Read more
Authored by: Winston A., Stöhr W., Antinori A., Arenas Pinto A., Llibre J. M., Amieva H., Cabié A., Williams I., Di Perri G., Tellez M. J., Rockstroh J., Babiker A., Pozniak A., Raffi F., Richert L.
Authored by: Wieten Rosanne W., Jonker Emile F. F., van Leeuwen Ester M. M., Remmerswaal Ester B. M., ten Berge Ineke J. M., de Visser Adriëtte W., van Genderen Perry J. J., Goorhuis Abraham, Visser Leo G., Grobusch Martin P., de Bree Godelieve J.
In: PLOS ONE 11(3), 2016, p.e0149871 .
Authored by: van Zoest Rosan A., Wit Ferdinand W., Kooij Katherine W., van der Valk Marc, Schouten Judith, Kootstra Neeltje A., Wiersinga W. Joost, Prins Maria, van den Born Bert Jan H., Reiss Peter.
In: CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES [aheadofprint], 2016, p. .
Authored by: van de Vijver Steven, Oti Samuel Oji, Gomez Gabriela B., Agyemang Charles, Egondi Thaddaeus, van Charante Eric Moll, Brewster Lizzy M., Hankins Catherine, Tanovic Zlata, Ezeh Alex, Kyobutungi Catherine, Stronks Karien.
In: GLOBAL HEALTH ACTION 9, 2016, p.30922 .
Authored by: van Dalen Yvonne W., Blokhuis Charlotte, Cohen Sophie, ter Stege Jacqueline A., Teunissen Charlotte E., Kuhle Jens, Kootstra Neeltje A., Scherpbier Henriette J., Kuijpers Taco W., Reiss Peter, Majoie Charles B. L. M., Caan Matthan W. A., Pajkrt Dasja.
In: MEDICINE 95(12), 2016, p.e3093 .
Authored by: Trung N. V., Carrique Mas J. J., Nghia N. H., Tu L. T. P., Mai H. H., Tuyen H. T., Campbell J., Nhung N. T., Nhung H. N., Minh P. V., Chieu T. T. B., Hieu T. Q., Mai N. T. N., Baker S., Wagenaar J. A., Hoa N. T., Schultsz C.
In: ZOONOSES AND PUBLIC HEALTH [aheadofprint], 2016, p. .
Authored by: Su Tanja, Wit Ferdinand W. N. M., Caan Matthan W. A., Schouten Judith, Prins Maria, Geurtsen Gert J., Cole James H., Sharp David J., Richard Edo, Reneman Liesbeth, Portegies Peter, Reiss Peter, Majoie Charles B.
In: AIDS [aheadofprint], 2016, p. .
Authored by: Sohn Elliott H., van Dijk Hille W., Jiao Chunhua, Kok Pauline H. B., Jeong Woojin, Demirkaya Nazli, Garmager Allison, Wit Ferdinand, Kucukevcilioglu Murat, van Velthoven Mirjam E. J., DeVries J. Hans, Mullins Robert F., Kuehn Markus H., Schlingemann Reinier Otto, Sonka Milan, Verbraak Frank D., Abràmoff Michael David.
In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA [aheadofprint], 2016, p. .
Authored by: Shepherd L., Borges Áh, Ledergerber B., Domingo P., Castagna A., Rockstroh J., Knysz B., Tomazic J., Karpov I., Kirk O., Lundgren J., Mocroft A.
In: HIV MEDICINE [aheadofprint], 2016, p. .
Authored by: Sabin Caroline A., Reiss Peter, Ryom Lene, Phillips Andrew N., Weber Rainer, Law Matthew, Fontas Eric, Mocroft Amanda, de Wit Stephane, Smith Colette, Dabis Francois, D’Arminio Monforte Antonella, El Sadr Wafaa, Lundgren Jens D.
In: BMC MEDICINE 14(1), 2016, p.61 .
Authored by: Rokx C., Gras L., van de Vijver D. A. M. C., Verbon A., Rijnders B. J. A.
In: HIV MEDICINE , 2016, p. .